(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Indians at work"

E 
XS 

kMAZ. 



INDIANS 

AT • WORK 





APRIL 15, 1937 

A NEWS SHEET FOR, INDIANS 
AND THE INDIAN SERVICE 



FICE* OF- INDIAN -AFFAIR 

WASHINGTON ^ P- Co 



/ 



NOTI CE 

Due to the moving of the Department of the 
Interior offices into the New Interior Building, and 
due particularly to the moving of the machines upon 
which "Indians At Work" is multilithed, there will he 
some uncertainty as to the dates of the May issues. 
Delay or even omission of one of them may be necessary. 




INDJ AN S AT WORK 

CONTENTS OF THE ISSUE OF APRIL 15, 1937 . 

Volume IV Number 17 

Page 

Editorial John Collier 1 

More About "False Reportings" * 6 

Cover Design 6 

New Yorker Is Awed And Shocked In The Fog Of A 

Dust Bowl Storm , George Greenfield 8 

Reorganization News , 13 

Seneca Soundings Louis Balsam 14 

Some Things The Indian Race Has Contributed 

To World Culture 15 

Great Lakes Delegation Visits Washington 22 

Tongue River Representatives In Washington 22 

Forum On The American Indian At Indianapolis .... Lawrence E. Lindley .... 23 

Hopi Arts and Crafts Otto Lomavitu 24 

Grand Portage Grace L. Nute 26 

Can You See This Wind? 32 

I.E.C.W. In Monument Valley, Navajo Agency Fred M. Goldsworthy .... 33 

Fine Horses - Pride Of The Crows Robert Yellowtail 37 

Fort Hall I.E.C.W. Undertakes Varied Program .... C. B. Garrett 40 

New Study Of Navajo Situation Issued 43 

Threat To Seneca Land Averted 46 

J. P. Kinney Of I.E.C.W. Staff Writes History Of 

Indian Land Tenure Allan G. Harper 47 

Father Gagnieur, Worker For Half-Century Among 

Chippewas , Dies 48 

From I.E.C.W. Reports 49 









INDI«^liiF : ll0RK 



■ x , ."- ■ « ;'*"' -' 



A W<z!\tis> £>W<£<z,t. Tor m'j^icms 



VOLU/AL IV" 'AP&UL 15, 1937- ^NUM&LR. 17- 

A member of the ,/ashington staff voices distress. He 
fears that the uncertainties created in the Indian and Service 
mind "by the attempts to destroy the Indian Reorganization Act 
may result in a backset to the Indian life r>rogram. 

And I share his concern, to this extent: that Indians 
know how in past decades, generations, many times the government 
has changed its policies — sometimes disastrously — without care- 
ful consideration and without consulting the Indians. And Indians 
know that many times in the past the government has made compacts 
with them, has allowed them to make profound adjustments in their 
lives to meet the terms of the compacts, and then cynically or 
carelessly has abrogated the compacts (treaties or agreements). 
Indians look on the Reorganization Act as the latest, most far- 
reaching of the government's compacts, and naturally they fear a 
repetition of past history. 



Otherwise stated, Indians suffer from an inherited feeling 
of insecurity which among a good many Indians almost amounts to an 
"anxiety neurosis", so that the distress arising from such an inci- 
dent as the attempted repeal of the Reorganization Act is greater 
than would be the distress of white people if similarly threatened. 

The following information .is set down to alleviate this 
feeling of distress among some of the Indians. 

The Indian Reorganization Act received fuller considera- 
tion by Congress than any Indian legislation of this lifetime. In- 
dians will remember that very detailed hearings were carried out in 
both the Senate and the House, and that the President addressed Con- 
gress twice upon the bill. Public opinion is well informed about 
the Reorganization Act. No proposed repeal, or radical amendment, 
of the Act could get to the floors of Congress without careful pre- 
vious hearings before the Indian Committees of the House and Senate. 

At these hearings, any onslaught against the Reorganiza- 
tion Act would have to pass from generalities to particulars. The 
discussion would have to deal with the actual language and actual 
operations of the Act. Let me illustrate what would then taJce place. 

One of the critics of the Act has charged that Indians 
who have not adopted the Act have been discriminated against. The 
facts produced at the hearings would show that actually the tribes 
who have not adopted the Act have received more money than the 
tribes which did adopt it. 



One of the critics has stated that he wants Indians to 
have the educational opportunities which whites now have. At the 
hearings it would "be developed that the Reorganization Act has on- 
ly one hearing upon this question, namely, that it authorizes a 
quarter of a million dollars a year for educational loans for ad- 
vanced training of Indians in business and professional and tech- 
nical schools and colleges. For the rest, the hearings would de- 
velop the fact that 50,328 of the 82,531 Indian children attending 
school at the present time are attending white public schools; and 
that those attending Indian schools frequently are receiving a more 
practical , up-to-date training as viewed by white education than 
most white children ever get. 

Again, one of the critics has stated that the tribe which 
first organized and first became a chartered corporation under the 
.act, is dissatisfied, and that five hundred of its members, who 
amount to about one-eixth of the tribe, have petitioned against the 
Act. At the hearings, so far as the facts after careful inquiry in- 
dicate, it would be developed that no such petition exists or has 
been signed by five hundred members of the tribe in question. 

Some critics of the Act talk about an alleged denial, in 
the government's schools, of Christian ministration to the Indians. 
At the hearings it would be developed that no such denial exists 
but that, on the contrary, the government's Indian schools extend 
facilities to ministers and missionaries which are denied in all 
public schools. 



Other critics talk about Communism, and say that the 
tribes organized under the Act are Soviet institutions. At the 
hearings it would become evident that tribes organized under the 
Act are merely clothed with some of the powers of ordinary munic- 
ipal government in the United States and some of the powers of the 
ordinary membership or business corporation in the United States; 
and at such hearings it might become possible to show even to the 
most benighted of such critics that a cattle association, a credit 
union, or a consumers 1 cooperative organization, is not communistic 
but is precisely the opposite thing from Communism. 

In brief, at a hearing, if held, there would be a swift 
and conclusive "debunking" of numerous statements being made against 
the Reorganization Act. 

If, in spite of such a showing, a repeal bill were re- 
ported to either House, then the discussion would be transferred to 
the floor, and there would be small chance indeed of a favorable 
vote. 

If by a miracle Congress should enact a repeal, the Pres- 
ident's veto power remains. 

The situation is not comparable to that which existed in 
other times when disastrous changes of policy were carelessly 
adopted or when treaties were torn up by Congress. In those in- 
stances, the Executive branch of the government was in agreement 
with Congress or was inactive or neutral« In the present case, the 
Executive branch of the government stands on the side of the Indians 



as, in the event of a vote, Congress also would prove to stand. 

And in previous times, the public has been largely unin- 
formed. In the present instance, as stated above, the public is 
well informed and there is a widespread and an active public opin- 
ion which would go into action, in the measure necessary, if a 
real peril should prove to exist. 

A final word to Indians and to Indian Service people both. 
These are times when great and sudden changes take place in the 
shape of public affairs all over the world. At such times, it is 
perfectly proper, and necessary and wholesome, for all citizens to 
be "on their tiptoes", and to be conscious of the necessity for 
watchfulness, of thoughtfulness and of struggle. The condition of 
the world _is a condition of profound insecurity, and of unpredictable 
futures. Whether or not one's own immediate situation is insecure 
and unpredictable, nevertheless he is a part of the world and must 
partake of its pangs of insecurity. 

All of us have to learn to live in such a world. We must 
"tone ourselves up" to this cold climate and these howling winds. 

Socrates said: "The unexamined life is not worth living." 
We at this particular pass of world affairs are being enabled and 
compelled to examine our lives, in a way that our fathers and grand- 
fathers did not have to do — indeed, could not do. To me it seems 
a very wholesome thing, that into Indian life, which is not apart 
from but one with humanity at large, there should be driven this 



necessity of watchf ulness , of preparedness for effort and for strug- 
gle, and of the searching of foundations. It is a good thing for 
the education and the upbuilding of the Indian race, and incident- 
ally of the Indian Service, 

JOHN COLLIER 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



MORE ABOUT "FALSE REPORTINGS 11 



In the February 15 issue of "Indians At Work", an article 
called "False Reportings" dealt with an earlier article published 
by the Indian Rights Association in the leaflet called "Indian 
Truth." 

In the March issue of "Indian Truth", the Indian Rights 
Association made reply to the article "False Reportings." 

To this reply, a response has been made, which is avail- 
able to those interested, in mimeographed form. The rejoinder in 
"Indian Truth" has not seemed to call for any modification in the 
original statement about "False Reportings", and it is not believed 
that the subject has an interest general enough to make it worth- 
while to print the subsequent answer in "Indians At Work." 



COVER DESIGN 



The cover design for this issue was drawn by Ruth Lalio, 
student at the Zuni Day School, Zuni, New Mexico. The motif was 
taken from a Zuni water jar. 



LACUNA miikS CARRYING WATER 




NEW YORKER IS AWED AND SHOCKED IN THE FOG OF A DUST BOWL STORM 
Rides 200 Miles On Train Through A Blinding Murk That Chokes And Kill3 All 
Animal And Plant Life, And Denudes And Ravages A Once Rich Land 
Reprinted By Permission From New York Times 

By G-eorge Greenfield 

In Kansas, Aboard The Denver Special of the Union Pacific, March 7. 

I am in the midst of a dust storm. The conductor tells me it is 
the first bad dust storm of 1937 and ot>p of the worst he has seen in two years. 




Running Tor Shelter In A South Dakota Dust Storm 



Through the car window I can see telegraph poles, some twenty feet 
from the roadbed. Beyond that fences line a road. The fences are approximately 
100 feet from the tracks. Beyond that is a thick fog - black, impenetrable, 
forbidding. We have passed through 200 miles of man-made fog. 

Looking out of the window, you might think it merely a cloudy, stormy 
day; that is, if you didn't know you were in a dust bowl. It is a cloudy day, 
but a different kind of clouds. Not the clouds New Yorkers know. 

I had read of dust storms, but they were vague in my consciousness. 
Now I see one, and it is a terrible, an awesome thing. 

They are clouds of dust - soil; soil blowing away from a ravaged and 
denuded land. A land raped by greed for $2 wheat. 



I have had only one thought in my trains as I sit on the train and 
look out at this desert through which we have been passing for two hours. It 
is a saddening, almost a heart-tearing thought. It is the thought that right 
here, under my very eyes, I am seeing this country blowing away. 

Can you, hack in your secure and comfortable homes, picture it? No. 
You have to see it, feel it, sense it. Here, in what was once the richest 
farm and stock land of the Middle West, I see the disintegration of that soil 
which has fed us. 

Let me tell about it. 

I left Kansas City at 10:10 o'clock at night. The next morning, 
near Ellis, Kansas, 303 miles from Kansas City, the country was bathed in 
sun . . . 

Darkening Over Barren Land 

Then, about an hour later, I noticed the light was becoming dim. 
It seemed as if the sky was darkening and I had the feeling that it was going 
to rain or snow. The whistle of wind sounded through the cracks of the window, 

By now we were in the vicinity of Oakley, Kansas. Suddenly I real- 
ized that we were in a dust storm. In the dust bowl of Western Kansas. What 
is a dust bowl? If it were not for a few gaunt, bare trees seen occasionally 
in the distance, I would think this country a flat Sahara Desert, except that 
the ground is hard and brown and not rolling and sandy white. 

It is not a desert in the sense that you see only vast reaches of 
sand, as in the Sahara. What makes you think of a desert is the lack of life. 
The land looks dead. I have not seen more than one or two automobiles driv- 
ing on the road that parallels the railroad track for a hundred miles or more. 

I have seen human beings only in the bleak, deserted-appearing vil- 
lages, consisting of a dozen or so shacks that we have passed or at which we 
halted to pick up water. Houses empty, yards empty. I have not seen a single 
child in these ghost-like, pathetic villages. The few persons I saw, looked 
like a lost people living in a lost land. 



Miles Of Lifeless Terrain 

I do not exaggerate when I say that this flat land, this country 
in which the soil is blowing away and piling up in mounds and filling your 
eyes, your mouth and nose with grit that irritates the throat and lining of 
your nostrils, I am not exaggerating when I say that it makes me feel I am 
looking at a dead land. 



I see death, for there is no life; for miles upon miles I have seen 
no life, no human beings, no birds, no animals. Only dull brown land with 
cracks showing; ground that looks like gray clay. Hills furrowed with 
eroded gullies - you have seen pictures like that in ruins of lost civiliza- 
tions. 

Trees, once in a while. But their branches, their naked limbs, are 
gray with dust. They look like ghosts of trees, shackled and strangled by 
this serpent, flinging their naked arms skyward as if crying for rescue from 
this encircling, choking thing... 



Death Riding The Rails 

Did I say a while back that all this reminded me of death? Let me 
tell you what a fellow passenger, who did not want his name published, told 
me. 

"Two trainmen died not so long ago as a result of passing through 
these dust storms for two years," he said. "They got the dust in their lungs 
dust pneumonia, they call it. Lungs couldn't function the way they should. 
Got real pneumonia and died." ... 

I saw one of the trainmen get off at a stop a while back when we 
were in the midst of the thickest part of the storm. He had a silk handker- 
chief tied around his mouth as he walked beside the tracks, When he returned 
and the train got under way he cursed. He spat and made a wry face. 

"Awful," he said, "awful." 

When he goes out into the air at train stops and puts that handker- 
chief around his head, he keeps moistening it with saliva. That helps him 
to breathe. He also has a gadget like a gas mask. When the storms are real 
bad (they all say today's is not as bad as the 1935 one - and Lord knows what 
it is like when it's real bad) why, then he puts on his dust mask. 

"I've been taking treatments that cost me $170," said the trainman. 
"Dust gets into the intestines, and that ain't so good." 

His face was drawn and worried. He looked out of the window at a 
deserted village with an expression that I can't quite describe. He dreads 
the trip through Western Kansas as though it were the plague. 



Extermination Of Rabbits, 

Death, did I say? I have been talking to people today who travel 
up and down this route, asking this man his opinion, another his experiences. 

10 • 



"I counted twelve telegraph poles on a trip through here last year, 
remarked one, solemnly, "and between those twelve poles saw not less than 
forty Kansas jackrabbits stretched out on the ground, deader than mackerel. 
Choked to death by dust. Why, these big jackrabbits - they were famous for 
their size - have been killed by thousands." 

He paused to pound his right fist into his left palm, then continued: 
"I mean by thousandsl You don't see hardly any now. You don't see any wild 
life out here, «cept maybe a few crows - and even those black bandits aren't 
here like they used to be. No, sir. No robins, no sage hens, no song birds 
and few animals of any kind. They're gone - gone. No place for 'em to live, 
nothin' to eat." 



glimpse, 



I haven't seen one bird today. A few crows and one rabbit I did 



Uprooting Of Buffalo Grass 



We passed a lonely farm a few miles back where seven cattle were 
grazing. They were the first cattle I had seen in several hours of riding. 

"You see that buffalo grass?" said one of my companions in the parlor 
car. "There's still a little of that grass left there and those cattle look 
in pretty good shape. But that buffalo grass isn't here any more the way it 
used to be. The wind and dust have torn it up by the roots and left the soil 
as bare as your hand. 

"Those few cattle used to be represented by vast herds so thick that 
you couldn't count them." He shook his head. "Yes, sir, right in this spot 
we're passing through they were as thick as flies. Now the stockmen are gone, 
too." ... 

There was a puzzled, mystified look in his face. It is an expres- 
sion I have seen on the faces of other people on the train. They can't under- 
stand this outburst of Nature's wrath. I saw fear in their faces, as of im- 
pending disaster ... 



Waste Answers Scorners 

Some of the passengers on the train pooh-pooh this dust storm talk. 
They say it's not so bad as the papers make out. They say it's bad for business, 
makes people afraid to invest in things out here and scares away people who 
have been living here. I suspect strongly this is native pride and shrewd- 
ness, coming to the defense of a threatened resource. Hope against hope. 

They have no answer when I point out to the deserted-looking vil- 
lages and the lifeless, utterly lifeless, land. 



11 



The windows in this train, all through the train, are sealed. It 
would take a crowbar to open them. The trains are air-conditioned throughout. 

But the thin, gray dust covers the sill where I sit and write, seep- 
ing through sealed windows and the porter bustles from chair to chair with a 
towel in his hand, cleaning the stuff from the windows and the sills. He takes 
his broom and goes out on the platform and sweeps away a covering of sand; 
sand that looks like Jones Beach sand, only thinner, finer, lifeless looking 
8 and. 




Dust Storm In Stanton County, Kansas - 1934. 



"I was in Oakley not long ago," said a thin, sallow-faced man, "when 
a cloud of dust hung over the town and you could hardly see across the street. 
1 Then it started to rain, and, brother, I'm telling you it rained mud, just 
black mud. And then it turned to sleet and the ground was so slippery it was 
as much as your life to walk out in it." 

"Yeah," said another passenger, "I know a town in this part of the 
country where they sent sixty-nine people to a hospital with dust inside 'em 
and only nine came back. The rest are in the boneyard." His face wore a 
mask of puzzlement... 



12 



Blown Away By Erosion 

Soil erosion. Wind erosion. Those words are vague and nebulous to 
many of you in New York. % did not know about them, either, when I left 
New York. But I know now, for today I have seen, I have seen what waste, 
greed, exploitation have done to our land. Unwise use, short-sighted farming. 

Literally, our land is blowing away, piling up in mounds of sand 
that make you think of the mounds of the Gobi Desert, Little holes in the 
land, about two or three feet in circumference, dot the bare countryside; 
places where the wind has struck and dug out the soil like so much feathery 
sand. No vegetation left to hold the land intact, to repulse the wind. 

It is a frightening experience. A thing no one would believe or 
visualize unless he has gone through it. The last time I was out here, twenty 
years ago, there were cattle and trees and birds and life. 

I cannot help remember J. N. Darling's words at the conservation 
conference in St. Louis last week, where a great army was organized to fight 
these things that are wasting our grand country away. 

Ding, a man who had the vision of all this years ago, but to whom 
no one listened said: 

"We must stop soil erosion. We must stop it because no government, 
no matter whether it be Democratic, Republican, Communistic, or dictatorship, 
can withstand the demands of hungry men who search for food in vain." 

Today I have seen the cold hand of death on what was one of the 
great breadbaskets of the nation. 

************ 



REORG ANIZATIO N NEWS 
Constitution 



Yes No 
3 



March 3 Saginaw (Great Lakes Agency) 109 



Charters 

~~ Yes No 

March 15 Pine Ridge 894 15?5 

March 15 Rosebud 1041 g50 



13 



SENECA SOUNDINGS 
By Louis Balsam 
Field Retire sentative - Office of Indian Affairs 




From The Tops Of These Buildings One 
Almost Can See Indian Land 



One afternoon 
a white man stood gazing 
over the high stone par- 
apet at the very top of 
the Empire State Build- 
ing in New York City. For 
fifty miles in any direc- 
tion he could see hills, 
rivers, valleys, roads, 
trees and "buildings in 
stimulating panorama. Di- 
rectly beneath him, 1,000 
feet down, was the vast 
intricate congestion of 
humanity, streets, smoke, 
structures, odors and 
traffic that is New York 



City. Nearly seven million human "beings, for the most part "civilized", 
lived, loved and had their "being within a small radius of where he stood. 

The white man looked down to where Thirty-fourth Street met Fifth 
Avenue and it came to him vividly that that corner was a symbol; a symbol of 
industry, art, finance, labor, capital, sophistication, pomp, prostitution, 
kindliness, crime, justice, religion, indifference, tolerance, intolerance - 
all conceivable forms of human expression, interest and endeavor. Here on 
any given day, and even as he looked, hundreds of thousands of human beings 
rubbed shoulders in an endless stream. Crowds flowed into and out of each 
other. Tremendous masses of human beings, each one bent upon the fulfill- 
ment of individual desires; millions of such individuals, millions of dollars 
and millions of plans, schemes, achievements, worries, ambitions, fears, hopes, 
all summed up in a name - New York City. 

He pondered this city before him and realized the futility of try- 
ing to sum it up in a phrase - yet he could not help being aware of certain 
characteristics; its sophistication, its high-speed tempo and the outward 
signs, certainly, of such power and magnificence as perhaps the world had not 
before seen quite the like. "All these huge masses of people ... how much 
can they mean to one another? What groups hold them endearingly together?" 
he wondered. 



14 



Off to the north and west, far beyond the sixty and eighty-story 
skyscrapers and beyond the roofs of vast tenement buildings housing 1,500 
families in an individual unit, remote from complex traffic jams, he saw a 
suggestion of green fields and of lakes. "Why just out there," he said, 
half pointing, "on several reservations Indians are living! Senecas. In a 
matter of hours I could be with them - away from all this - and still be in 
the very heart of New York State ..." 



During his first few days at various Seneca reservations at 
Onondaga, Tonawanda, Tuscarora, Cattaraugus and Allegany, it was difficult 
for him to believe that he really was among Indians. Here within about an 
hour from the great city of Buffalo were over 4,000 Indian people. Unless 
he deliberately looked into the faces of many of them, it was seldom possible 
for him to tell the majority of these Indians from the many thousands of 
white New Yorkers who lived everywhere about them. Certainly not by their 
clothes could he describe them as Indians, since the overwhelming majority 
dressed exactly as their white neighbors: the same overalls, shirts, work- 
ing suits, hats, dresses; everything identical. Their homes, too, disappointed 
this white man who was looking for a native, primitive culture. 

These Senecas lived as did the white oeople about them who were in 
similar circumstances: simple wooden frame dwellings, of two, three and 
four rooms housed hundreds of them. Many hundreds lived in well-worn shacks, 
patched and repatched with boards, with wood from orange crates and with tar 
paper. Scores of homes had leaking roofs, crumbled steps, broken porches, 
and all of these were exactly as similar homes of thousands of white neigh- 
bors. 

When the man 
looked about for signs of 
industry or of work which 
would mark these oeople as 
Indians, he at first found 
none. Hundreds were mechan- 
ics, machinists, laborers 
and workers in the great 
mills and industries at Buf- 
falo, Rochester and Syracuse. 
In proportion to their pop- 
ulation, more of them had 
retained their jobs than did 
white people during the de- 
pression, entirely because 
of the excellence of the 
work of the Indians who had 




"Wolf Run" - Allegheny River 



15 



not only learned white men's techniques hut haa gone white men one better! 
A very small number of Indians were making a living by farming. On these 
reservations, as on others much further west, the visitor found a good deal 
of leased land which the Indians had rented out to white farmers. A small 
amount of this land was considered the best in the State of New York and 
from it, Italian and other farmers were making a fat living whilst the In- 
dian owners were barely "getting by." 

As the white man talked with more and more of these Indian people, 
he learned after a week or so that most of them were ambitious to build 
themselves up to the standards of living of the surrounding whites. Large 
numbers of Senecas had already intermarried and these said little or nothing 
about being Indians. Others considered themselves whites, owned especially 
fine homes and were treated as equals by white neighbors. 

Automobiles were everywhere. Most of them were six to a dozen 
years old. Many were driven with a lofty, almost noble, disregard of such 
worldly considerations as traffic laws. It gave the white visitor a feeling 
of being back in the west among horses, so ■Individually active and unpredic- 
table were the movements of many of the Indian-driven cars he encountered on 
reservations. Like horses, too, many of these cars showed no lights at night. 

When he delved into statistics, the visitor saw that these Indians 
had, from New York, the same average of public relief money per capita as 
did their white neighbors. He remembered his history sufficiently to recall 
that it was within his own lifetime that the Seneca peoples considered it 
beneath their dignity and self-respect to ask charity of anyone. They took 
care of their own poor and helpless. "Civilization and its blessings!" the 
visitor said mockingly to himself. "White man's contribution to 'Lo, the 
poor Indian! ' " 

As he rode over miles of the finest roads in the State, right 
through and across the various reservations, he realized again and again 
that most of the white people' in the thousands of cars that used these same 
roads daily, zoomed along probably without even imagining the hundreds and 
thousands of Indians who lived on both sides of those highways: Seneca In- 
dians, whose power and pride, whose land and assets, whose handicrafts, 
self-sufficiency and basic philosophies of life, even when viewed in retro- 
spect, remain one of the great glories of a great continent. 

These Indians were Somebody once. Indians and proud to be Indians. 
Today only a portion of the thousands who owned and roamed New York State, 
remained and more and more they were becoming like white people and proud 
of that too. "Well, all life is change," the white man told himself. "It 
isn't life otherwise. If these Senecas have really lost their Indianship, 
and if they are really becoming swallowed up in the white population, then 
they are. We might as well look the facts right in the eye!" 



16 



He let his thoughts run along that channel: in another genera- 
tion, perhaps, there might be no Indian problem in New York. In another 
generation, people would believe less than they do now that there were any 
Indians in New York State. Racial amalgamation, he recalled, seems like a 
slow process, but once it is under way it isn't very long before its thor- 
oughness seems startling. 

Somehow the thought of these Senecas' disappearance troubled him 
despite his attempt at objectivity and at facing facts. Were they really 
disappearing? Were they really blending? He felt, sadly, what a pity it 
was that what we call civilization should kill so much of the best that is 
our heritage from a simpler and saner past. That night and in several 
nights that followed he had his answer: an answer which to this day heart- 
ens and delights him: The answer was that so far as human relations go, 
what one sees on the surface is not necessarily the whole picture! The 
answer was that what is told to one by those most able to talk , or by those 
who have an axe to grind, or ambitions of their own, is not either the whole 
truth, even though the tellers are sincere. 

On that memorable night he was deeply privileged to have a glimpse 
at the soul of a people; for where a people's joyous, creative expression is, 
there their soul is, too. He was invited to ait in with a group of Senecas 
who were called pagan: a powerfully large minority who while outwardly look- 




The Mask-Makers' Corner* 
•Photograph through courtesy of Rochester Museum, New York. 

17 



lng exactly like and living exactly like 
the other mechanics, machinists, labor- 
ers and farmers were still Indians in 
the deepest and richest sense cf that 
terra: an Indian oasis in the vastness 
of surrounding white civilization! 

Into a very ordinary cottage 
he found his way. It was a two-room 
dwelling and not a bit different from 
hundreds of American cottages around 
it. Once inside, however, he had the 
feeling of quite definitely leaving 
white America entirely behind him. 
Utterly. 

In the larger of the two 
rooms almost everything had been cleared 
away, leaving the floor bare. Almost 
everything except, to his amazement and 
delight, four examples of arts and 
crafts as fine and as beautifully done 
as any similar art work done by any 
people anywhere! Upon one wall hung a 
hand-carved wooden mask of superb pro- 
portions and executed with a feeling 
for life - and a creativeness any white 
wood sculptor might feel proud of. The 
mask had an aliveness of expression, 
a certain sadness and wistfulness which 
deeply moved the visitor. "Do you folks 
do much of this work?" he asked. A dozen voices answered at once. For days 
afterwards the white man kept asking to see more of these remarkable masks. 
The more he saw, the more he marveled: marveled, too, at the vitality of 
the Seneca Society of Faces built around the cultural significance of these 
masks to help get rid of disease and dis-ease. 

In one corner of the room was a "snow snake." This was a slim 
shaft of highly polished wood about eight feet long, delicately and beauti- 
fully wrought. Just as the masks were made for the joy of creative expres- 
sion to be used in religious ceremonials, so were these snow snakes made 
for the joy of doing it, but for winter sports. 

On another wall was a pair of snowshoes* A careful examination 
of these showed them to have admirably combined beauty and utility. Beneath 
these was one of the "crooked mouth" masks, a thing of urgence and of life. 
Done, in the name of Religion, for the pleasure of doing it. Art, indeed. 




Her. Peter W. Doctor, 

Pastor, Presbyterian Church, 
Tonawanda Reservation In New York 



18 



He was exhilarated by seeing these expressions of Seneca life. He 
lookBd upon the men on the crowded benches, now, with heightened interest. 
Some of them were carrying small rattles about six inches long, the handles 
of which were made of wood about a quarter of an inch thick and the rattle 
of which was made of cow's horn, scraped and polished. Other men were hold- 
ing small water-drums about six inches in diameter. 

With these and with no other musical instruments, the men began to 
produce music and rhythm so powerful, so dynamic, so cosmic, as to make the 
white guest grip his hands in delight and expectation. Starting with one 
man who began a quiet rhythmic chant, accompanied by an equally rhythmic tap- 
ping of both his feet which singing and tapping increased in volume, in tempo 
and in emotional force it was a matter of seconds before everyone of the 
twenty-odd Indians in that room had joined him. The group now began to sing 
with rising tones, with increasing tempo, with increasing rhythm, with feet 
moving faster and faster, singing in rich harmony with rattles sounding and 
with small drums echoing. 



In no time at all, every Indian present had succeeded in singing 
himself and rhythming himself completely out of his workaday ordinary world. 
Completely and Deautifully. Eyes closed, spirits released and soaring, these 
Indians were now at one with Deeps of Life, with the very essence of Creativ- 
ity, with Religion in its noblest sense. By their own efforts, out of the 
dynamic reaches of their own revered and glorious past, out of centuries 
only apparently gone, came this vital 
poignant strength: Strength to face 
life again tomorrow and other tomorrows 
to the end of time: Strength very 
quietly, despite surface appearance, 
desrcite propaganda, to be Indians even 
in an overwhelmingly non-Indian world! 

As he sat in that room which 
was once (could it have been a thousand 
years ago when he entered?) a very 
ordinary place, he knew that it was a 
little room no longer, nor even a def- 
inite place in a definite locality! 
The songs from the Deeps of Long Ago, 
the rhythms and the spiritual intensi- 
ties which his Indian hosts had evolved 
by now, had possessed this white man 
too; had released in him impulses, per- 
haps aeons old, who knows? There he 
was, as were those Indians, in an Im- 
mensity, a beautiful Immensity and into 
his being, too, flowed Strength, Beauty, 
Power, Tolerance, Understanding and 
that Peace which passeth all under- 
standing. Basket Weaving - Allegany 

Reservation In New York 




19 




From out of the second room came 
several Seneca women who, seeing that the 
men had risen and had begun to dance in 
a circle, joined that dance in a rhythmic 
pattern of their own. In and out of the 
men's circle moved these women, lithe, 
sinuous, graceful; beautiful expressions 
of poetry and motion - yes, and of life, 
birth, dawns, dreams and of Essence of 
all that religion can be and sometimes is. 
For here was worshin as reverent and as 
spiritual as anything in any holy place. 

Worship? Yes, but more than 
that, too. Here was a heart-warming, 
social solidarity. Here was a lovable 
group expression. Here were human beings 
who had kept alive the sources of individ- 
uality, entirely because they had kept 
their group interests and their group 
responsibilities alive'. Here were humans 
who keenly realized an age-old diction: 
"No man liveth by himself alone!" They, 
encouragingly enough, sensed that in di- 
rect proportion to participation in the 

life of his group, does a person live most keenly, most deeply; does he really 

live at alii 



Seneca Children Play At 
Cooking Corn Soup 



It was midnight now. Farewells all around. The white man felt 
moved to say something: "Thank youi For one of the most moving and deepest 
experiences of my life. Don't ever lose the spirit of this evening. Pass 
it mi to these young people here. Cherish this togetherness above all else 
for it ties you to what is beautiful and fine in the past and what is life- 
saving. It ties you to all that may come to you as Indians." 

As he walked to his hotel under wintry stars, a happy smile suf- 
fused him. It was not really visible, but something quiet, warm and inner; 
a glow which was to be with him long afterwards. A phrase he had heard so 
many times since his arrival at the reservation insisted upon his attention: 
"The Senecas are done as Indians." He thought back to what had just happened, 
and he knew better. Done? No. Not ever. Certainly not so long as such 
meetings were possible: gatherings which so vitally released wells of life 
from all the centuries back of these Seneca people from the Dawn of Time 
even. 

Amalgamation would go on, no doubt but not annihilation] These 
Senecas clearly needed help just as white men needed it and here New York 
State was doing a fine work and doing it with increasing effectiveness, ex- 
pressing in some measure at least, an attempt on the part of decent white 



20 



people to make up for centuries of white man's dishonor and dishonesty to- 
ward Indians. He was glad that people like Dr. David Adie, keen, under- 
standing and sympathetically scientific, were on the job! He remembered the 
effective achievements of Harry Hirsch and thought happily of the years of 
careful, thorough cooperative work of John Brennan; of the fine humanity of 
Helen Wayne, all of the New York State staff. 

Amalgamation or no amalgamation, the Senecas were still vital as 
Indians. This was tremendously encouraging to the visitor who cherished in- 
dividual racial expression, especially native racial expression as some- 
thing particularly precious. Here was a challenge, too! In a warm poignant 
mood where thankfulness and exaltation mingled with determination, he walked 
into the Seneca night. 

, m m mm * * * * * * * * 
GREAT LAKES DELEGATION VISITS WASHINGTON 



A delegation from the Great Lakes Agency in Ashland, Wisconsin, 
has been in the Washington Office on Reorganization, claims and other mat- 
ters. Members of the delegation were: 

Frank G. Smart and William Goslin from the Bad River Reservation 
in Odanah, Wisconsin; Frank Setter and John Kingfisher from the Lac Courte 
Oreilles Reservation in Reserve, Wisconsin; George W. Brown and Thomas L. 
St. Germaine from the Lac du Flambeau Reservation in Lac du Flambeau, Wis- 
consin; John Thomas and Charles Cardinal from the L'Anse Reservation in 
L'Anse, Michigan; Mike J. Gordon from Red Cliff Reservation in Bayfield, 
Wisconsin; Herman E. Cameron from Bay Mills Mission Reserve in Brimley, 
Michigan; Henry Ritchie from the Wisconsin Potawatomies, Crandon, Wisconsin; 
Frank Eli from the Wisconsin Potawatomies in Harris-Wilson, Michigan; and 
John Lonestar from the St. Croix Band in Shell Lake, Wisconsin. 

****** 
TONGUE RIVER REPRESENTATIVES IN WASHINGTON 



The Tongue River delegation which visited Washington consisted of 
John Stands In Timber, John Black Wolf and Eugene Fisher. They took up 
various matters with the Washington Office Staff. 

21 







rants 






m. 


- ;■: 


ftaiwl 


Mate 


ft/mpkm 




- 




row 


i ■ 


■ F owct 


Haze Cbilll fifjxf 


K«ta^ Deans 


SwalPbUtc 





hii! nut ! 



I C O c c 

■ ■'I 

[ O O O 




/i in/ 1.'. iiniii'.sTii /mi i;/ /ni'.itii /I ii iu/i.', 




i til 1./ i'H /i,i»/( a 



AltBWI 


INDIAN PLANTS 




- - 


LONG STAPLE COTTON 




■ 


1 f 




SISAL HEMP 


CACAO 
PW~ APPLE 









«c utsmmon 

unreal 

wmnam 

rvx vaiMSce -at srt tt ne- 
ar the W7EJ cf xmnctiu 
e UM OK E 



93XTS OUtPfiai-SiOS 







SOME THINGS THE INDIAN RACE HAS CONTRIBUTED TO WORLD CULTURE 

Domestic animals, some important agricultural plants and a few of the 
ideas from Indian sources which have been adopted by other races. A unit done 
by the pupils in a social studies class at Santa Fe Indian School in New Mexico. 



Photograph by T. Harmon Parkhurst 



22 



FORUM ON THE AMERICAN INDIAN AT INDIANAPOLIS 
By Lawrence E. Lindley 



The Forum on the American Indian as a special group associated with 
the National Conference of Social Work will have three meetings during the 
National Conference at Indianapolis. 

The Forum was organized at the National Conference last year to con- 
tinue the progress of the Committee on the American Indian of the National 
Conference of the past eight years. 

The meetings scheduled for this year are as follows: 

Thursday, May 27, 2:00 - 3;30 p. m . General topic, "Indian Eco- 
nomic Development." Walter V. Woehlke of the Indian Service, who has also 
worked with the Soil Conservation Service, "will speak on "Soil Conservation 
and Human Needs." The discussion will be opened by C. C. Brooks, formerly of 
the faculty of the Colorado College of Agriculture and now Superintendent of 
the Navajo Methodist School at Farmington, New Mexico. 

Thursday, May 27, 7:00 p. m . At this dinner meeting the Indians 
in attendance at the Conference will give short talks about their work. 
This is a custom which has been followed for several years. 

Friday, May 28, 3:00 - 4:30 p. m . This meeting will be a panel dis- 
cussion on the general subject of "Native Leadership." The opportunities for 
training and employment of Indian young people, follow-up work after place- 
ment and the needs for the future will be considered. Of those invited to be 
a part of the panel the following have accepted: Mrs. Ruth Muskrat Bronson, 
Office of Indian Affairs; Miss Bertha M. Eckert, National Y. W. C. A. Secre- 
tary for Indian Workj Miss Fay G. Webb, Employment Department, Oklahoma City 
T. W. C. A.; and Dr. J. C. McCaskill, Assistant Director of Indian Education, 
Washington, D. C 

It is planned to allow time for questions and general discussions 
at all sessions. 

On the program of the Case Work Section of the National Conference, 
May 27, 11:00 - 12:30, Dr. H. Scudder Mekeel of the Indian Office will speak 
on "Case Work with American Indians." 

The work of the Forum on the American Indian is in charge of an 
Executive Committee of twenty in addition to the officers, who are Lawrence 
E. Lindley, Indian Rights Association, chairman; Mrs. Henry Roe Cloud, vice- 
chairman, and Father J. B. Tennelly, Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions, 
Secretary- Treasurer. 



23 



HOP I ARTS AMD CEAFTS 
By Otto Lomavitu, Chairman, Hopi Tribal Council 




The Hopi constitu- 
tion and by-laws were signed 
by the Secretary of the Inte- 
rior December 18, 1936. Under 
it a tribal council represent- 
ing all the Honi villages was 
formed in January. Our con- 
stitution gives as one of the 
powers of the council, the 
right "to protect the arts, 
crafts, traditions and cere- 
monies of the Hopi Indians." 
In this clause there is opened 
to the Hop is a way to future 
well-being if it is grasped 
and rightly made use of. 

The Hopi people are 
like a nation surrounded by 
other nationalities foreign 

Hopi Pottery By Nampeyo to them ~ foreign in govern- 

ment, custom, religion and 
language as well as in arts and crafts. Now our precious inheritance is pro- 
tected by the Indian Reorganization Act; this gives us confidence. 

We should make it our aim to bring into harmony and unity the best 
elements in our civilization and those of our neighbors. 

Even with our limited resources, I believe it is possible for our 
Hopi people to compete with other races of men. And are not our arts and 
crafts, which are an asset peculiar to us Hopis, a potential element in our 
progress? It seems to me that our place in the race of life will depend on 
our ability to improve and to perpetuate our resources, one of which is our 
craft inheritance. There is ready market for our manufactures, but because 
of the inferior quality of some of our work, its disposal at good prices is 
difficult. These exports can be expanded through improvement of our wares. 

We have a high school at Kyaqotsmovi (Lower Oraibi) for general 
training; there something of both Hopi and European civilizations is taught. 
We can learn the arts and crafts and the techniques of other groups as well 
as our own and improve our products without destroying their individuality. 
We have our crafts materials here at hand. Our people are homogeneous, re- 
ligious and intensely patriotic. We must take stock of our assets and move 
ahead. 



24 



HAMPEYO - FAMOUS HOP I POTTEE 




Photo .By Jj'rasneTS , Pomona, California 



GRAND PORTAGE 
By Grace Lee Nute - Curator of Manuscripts 
Minnesota Historical Society 



"'gjjte- 




' r 






Eel>~'" 


W& J3J sP*HH 


P^KT 


Rnai£ 





Grand Portage As It Is Today 

The tourist who motors today along Minnesota's North Shore Drive 
on Lake Suoerior between hills on one side and an aormrent ocean on the 
other comes eventually to a terminus at Grand Portage. It is a sleeny Indian 
village climbing the gentle, low^r slopes of Mount Rose. Today its beautiful 
setting attracts the wayfarer: Mount Rose behind the village, Mount Joseph- 
ine shutting it off from the east beyond the bay, Grand Portage Island guard- 
ing its entrance from the storms of the lake and Hat Point jutting far into 
the waters of Gitchee Gooraee. Forests, hills, water, good fishing, Indians, 
peace and the songs of birds that are rarely heard south of the border - 
these are some of Grand Portage 1 s assets today. 

But let us go back in history, apnroximately a hundred and fifty 
years. Then Grand Portage was an important spot on the map of North America. 
St. Paul, Chicago and St. Louis were not to be found on it, but Grand Portage 
was there, clearly marked. Why was Grand Portage so important in 1790 and 
almost forgotten in 1937? 



26 



The Great Carrying Place 

Its very name suggests the answer. The French-Canadian fur traders 
named it le grand portage - the great carrying place for canoes - and it meant 
to them the longest portage "but one on their usual route from Montreal to the 
Rockies, as well as the spot where canoe travel changed. Up to this point 
large canoes could travel, carrying immense loads of trade goods and voyageurs 
from Montreal by way of the Ottawa River and the Great Lakes. Beyond Grand 
Portage, after eight long miles of overland "carrying" around the rapids, oth- 
er types of canoes, food, dress and travel methods were employed. Naturally, 
therefore, a big depot, or fort, grew up on the lake end of the portage. It 
took its name just as naturally and became Grand Portage. 

The exact date of its establishment is not known. In 1750 the first 
trading licenses were made out to "le grand portage", although the great 
French explorer, La Verendrye, had used the portage many years before. The 
region was still in 1750 a part of New France and the licenses were French 
ones. By 1767, when Jonathan Carver, a Colonial explorer, visited Grand 
Portage, the French had lost Canada and the traders to the region were British 
with British licenses. Still there was no trading post - at least Carver 
makes no reference to one. 



A Great Trading Depot Arises In T h e Wilderness 

Sometime between Carver's visit and the year 1793 a large depot was 
built at Grand Portage. The owners were the partners of the Great Northwest 
Company which had been forming in the period of the American war of independ- 
ence. The company had headquarters at Montreal but unlike their great rivals, 
the Hudson's Bay Company, they had no governor or other definite executive 
agent. One or more of the partners, however, resided at Grand Portage and 
managed its trade and personnel as a governor would have done. A smaller 
establishment, Fort Charlotte, was built at the Pigeon River end of the long 
portage and its executive officer in 1793 was actually called "Governor" Ross, 
because, it was said, he had held his position for so long. 




Montreal To Grand Portage - Eighteen Hundred Miles By Canoe 



37 



Eighteen Hundred Miles By Canoe 

This fort at Grand Portage was the end of the annual canoe journey 
of one type of voyageurs, "the pork eaters", and the beginning of the hardships 
of another, "the winterers." The pork eaters were the greenhorns of the fur 
trade - the men who had never "been "beyond Grand Portage. They left Montreal 
in the late spring in great birch hark canoes that rode deep in the water, 
so heavily were they laden with "blankets, guns and other trade goods. Ten 
to fourteen men were required to paddle such a craft. The canoes passed up 
the Ottawa River and one of its western "branches, through Lake Nipissing, 
across Georgian Bay and were portaged around Sault Ste. Marie. 

By July they might have "been espied from the air, hugging the Rocky 
north shore of Lake Superior as they approached Grand Portage. Before Hat 
Point was turned these voyageurs must prepare for the grand flourish with 
which every canoe was expected to enter the "bay and approach the fort. On 
some rocky point the men doffed their workaday clothes and donned the color- 
ful dress of voyageurs. Most noticeable in that garb was the bright sash 
that encircled the waist several times and was knotted on one side so as to 
fall in long fringes well toward the knees. If the weather was cold, as it 
usually was in the early northern summer, the sash was tied outside the 
great capote , whose hood was a boon when clouds of mosquitoes attacked the 
hard working paddlers or when snow squalls made them shiver. Bathed, shaven 
and tricked out in holiday dress, the voyageurs entered their canoes once 
more and came up the bay swinging red-bladed paddles, a stroke every second, 
and chanting one of their canoe songs: "A la claire fontaine", or "En roulant", 
or "La belle Rose", or any other of their extensive repertoire. 

Thus with song and acclaim a whole brigade of canoes would sweep 
up the bay and deposit their men and goods. As canoe after canoe arrived 
from the lake side of the fort, bronzed, lithe figures topped with Nor 1 westers 1 
plumes might descend from the other side. These were the hivernants , the 
winterers who had passed at least one season in the great spaces of the fur 
trade beyond Grand Portage and were now returning with their furs to get more 
trade goods for another season. Only Nor 'westers might wear plumes. 

The Peak Of The Year 

So Grand Portage in early summer was full of gay French chatter as 
news from Montreal was exchanged for the gossip of forts on scores of western 
streams in forests and prairies stretching out toward the Pacific Ocean. Over 
a thousand men were congregated. The pork eaters slept in the camp outside 
the stockade under overturned canoes as they were accustomed to do en route. 
The Nor 'westers, however, set up tents of varying size, pitched so that the 
creek separated them here as elsewhere from the pork eaters. The clerks and 
partners who had also arrived from east and west in the brigades were given 
hospitality in the fort proper. A convivial air -pervaded the whole establish- 
ment. Dances were frequent in the evenings where partners were Indian women 
or half-blood daughters of earlier voyageurs and traders. Feasts, where even 

28 



milk aJid butter from the fort's herd were served, tickled the t>alates of men 
who had often faced starvation during the preceding winter in isolated posts 
and who had lived for twelve months on what the wilderness could provide. 
There was strong drink, talk, arguments, fights. 

But there was also work to he done. Canoes must be mended for the 
homeward journey; furs must be baled in the great press and tied up in ninety- 
pound parcels; the long Montreal canoes must be exchanged for smaller, north 
canoes for the men going into the interior; and, finally, the goods and canoes 
for the interior must be carried over the long portage and started on their 
western journeys. Six livres in currency was paid for every piece carried 
over the portage. 

Meanwhile serious business occupied clerks and partners within the 
great hall. The annual meeting was held. Assignments of territories, jobs 
and assistants were made and policies were considered or discarded. 

A few years later, about 1797, the X Y Company also established a 
fort at Grand Portage, about a quarter of a mile to the east of the North- 
west Company's post and beyond the camp of the pork eaters. It, too, was 
stockaded and built on much the same plan as the older establishment, though 
on a smaller scale. 

Famous traders and explorers who are known to have visited the 
Grand Portage fort include Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Peter Pond, Count Paolo 
Andreani, David Thompson and Dr. John McLoughlin. 

The Great Trading Place Declines 

Grand Portage's glory was not for long. About 1800 it was learned 
that the post lay within the boundaries of the United States. The Northwest 
and X Y Companies combined in 1804. Between 1801 and 1804 a new post, Fort 
William, known to be within Canadian territory to the northeast of the old 
site, was substituted for Grand Portage. Less than twenty years later hardly 
a vestige could be seen of the old buildings and stockades at Grand Portage, 
as David Thompson found when he revisited the scene of his earlier activities 
in 1822. So quickly does a wilderness obliterate man's vaunted improvements. 
Only in 1936 when picks and spades had opened up the site again was it cer- 
tain just where lines of pickets had run, where gates had been and how the 
general outline of the Northwest Company's post had been established. The 
portage path was less difficult to locate, for it had been so worn down by 
thousands of toiling voyageur feet that it is obvious even today. 

Indians, however, continued to live in or near the vicinity of the 
old portage; occasional canoe parties passed over it; the international 
boundary was run close to it in 1822 and 1823; Lieutenant Bayfield visited 
it and mapped the bay in 1823 and 1825; and American traders st»ent a winter 
now and again in its vicinity, despite an agreement to the contrary between 

29 



the American Fur Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, in effect from 1833 
to 1847. A more legitimate activity of the American Fur Company was its 
fishing venture at Grand Portage in the late thirties, part of the grandiose 
scheme for making money from Lake Superior's •unexcelled fish. Several build- 
ings were established and. for a few years an ex-trader, Pierre Cote, made the 
forests resound to the hammers of his coopers and the songs of his net-makers. 
But the effects of the panic of 1837 reached even to this isolated spot and 
stilled the hammers and rotted the nets. 



Missionaries Leave Valuable Records 

Meanwhile the missionary had arrived, as the normal course of events 
on an American frontier would lead one to anticipate. The fur traders, fish- 
ermen and missionaries were seldom far apart in the occupation of an American 
frontier. The earliest known missionary at Grand Portage was a French-Cana- 
dian priest, Father Antoine Tabeau, who was conducting a mission at Fort Wil- 
liam in the summer of 1818. From thence he, with one of the McGillivrays of 
the Northwest Company, made a short visit "to the old Grand Portage, sixteen 
leagues from here on Lake Superior." He gives no description of his trip nor 
of what he saw there. 

One of the "saltiest" of the whole clan of missionaries did the 
pioneer work at Grand Portage. Franz Pierz, known for his horticultural ex- 
periments of many years' standing in his native Austria, left his gardens and 
orchards in 1835 to answer to the Macedonian call of his countryman, the 
Reverend Friedrich Baraga, and went to join the latter in his mission field 
in the wilds of the Lake Michigan region. Thence Father Pierz went to Lake 
Superior and in 1835 was building a mission establishment at Grand Portage. 
How Grand Portage appeared to a cultivated European in 1335 may be gathered 
from the following extract from Father Pierz' s letter written from his sta- 
tion there on December 3, 1838: 

"Grand Portage, my present mission post, is the most beautiful and, 
since earliest times, the most famous spot on the north shore of Lake Superior. 
It has a good harbor for landing and good fishing. The soil is well adapted 
to farming, but thus far has not been used for that purpose. I have made a 
beginning of agriculture by laying out a beautiful kitchen garden, a large 
cultivated field and a little nursery planted with fruit seeds from Carniola. 
... My house for the present is a small cabin of huge unhewn logs, chinked 
on the outside with mud plaster and whitewashed on the inside with white 
earth. It is provided with windows, and a stone fireplace ... My church is 
made of cedar bark, thirty feet wide and forty feet long and displays real 
workmanship." 

Pierz was just feeling the pleasure of success among his flock where 
he also had a promising school, when orders to return to his erstwhile post 
came to dishearten both him and the natives. After his departure, late in 
1839, there was a period of about six years when most of the mission work was 
itinerant, the triad of Slovenian priests, Friedrich Baraga, Otto Skolla and 



30 



and Franz Pierz, visiting the post and staying as long as possible. In 1842 
Pierz was back long enough to start a mission on Pigeon River, where he also 
started an orchard, planted gardens and kept stock and poultry. On September 
1, 1846, Father Skolla described the place thus: 

"Grand Portage is on the bay of Lake Superior. The position of 
this place is very pleasant, the ground fruitful and level, although sur- 
rounded by rather high mountains. A great deal of black slate is found here 
and in many places a sort of white earth which was used for filling the 
crevices between the logs while there were houses here. At present there 
are no houses, only poor Indian huts. The number of savages is about eighty, 
including children. They live very meagerly ... Six miles from Grand Portage 
is Pigeon River, a very wild spot between two thick forests ... I visited that 
place also. Here several years ago the honorable Mr. Pierz had begun a 
church which is still without a roof ... Besides the church ... Mr. Pierz had 
built a small house of one room and another building where church supplies 
were kept. The soil is much better and more productive here than in Grand 
Portage. " 




Eastern Portion Of Pigeon Point 
Showing Susie Islands 

From July, 1848, until the summer of 1849 the Pigeon River Mission 
was in charge of the Jesuits under Father Pierre Chone, Father Nicolas 
Fremiot and Brother de Pooter. A cabin was built, a school was maintained 
and divine services were held. After 1849 and till at least 1864 Grand Portage 
was visited by missionaries from Fort William. About 1855 a Catholic School 
was opened under Eugene Benoit and shortly the government built a schoolhouse. 

The new school was maintained by the government because of the 
fact that an Indian reservation had been established at Grand Portage after 
the United States had purchased the triangle north of Lake Superior from the 



31 



Chippewa in 1854. Late in the nineteenth century this reservation was broken 
up. 

Site Of Old Post Excavated 

Great interest has developed of recent years in the possible re- 
construction of the old post and steps have already been taken by the Indian 
Service and the Minnesota Historical Society with Federal Government aid to 
lay a firm foundation for reconstruction through adequate excavation under 
the direction of competent archaeologists. The story of those excavations 
will be told later.* 



* An article by Ralph D. Brown, of the Minnesota Historical Society, on the 
excavation of the old post at Grand Portage, will follow in an early issue. 



CAN YOU SEE THIS WIND? 



■Jft J 




•fir; 

V-" : \ ■■■■■: 


F I^Jfl 


nil 




g4 





Pine Ridge Agency, South Dakota 



"The wind up on top of Eagles' Nest Butte would flap a log chain," 
said Vance Tribbett, in charge of building a lookout tower there for "spotting" 
prairie fires. 

"We don't believe it," said, or implied, his coworkers. "Look at 
these then," said Mr. Tribbett, producing the pictures in the center and 
right-hand side of this page. 

The picture on the left shows a shovel-ful of dirt leaving Vincent 
Bad Wound's shovel in the work on the lookout tower. 



32 



I.E.O.W . IN MONUMENT VALLEY , NAVAJO AGENCY , ARIZONA 
By Fred M. Goldsworthy, Trail Locator 




Stock Water Reservoir With Protecting Fence 

Par in the north of Arizona and extending into Utah, one hundred 
and sixty miles from a railroad and nearly as far from a highway, is Monument 
Valley, the most remote and inaccessible large region in the United States. 
This area, comprising 1,451,000 acres, or 2270 square miles, has but one tel- 
ephone line and two secondary roads - those from Tuba City to Shiprock and 
from Gallup to Bluff, Utah. The population of 1600 Indians - 220 families - 
is concentrated in two centers - Kayenta and Dennehotso, at which centers 
the Government has established day schools. 

Water Development Of Prime Importance 

development is of prime importance. During the early part of the winter, 
Emergency Conservation Work on the Navajo was engaged in developing the 
and November, Emergency Conservation Work has been engaged in developing the 
region for more profitable utilization of the range resources. The most im- 
portant type of work in this area comes under the classification of water 
development. Part of the area is excellent grazing land, but due to the fact 
that there is not sufficient water for stock, it is little used. On the oth- 
er hand, grazing land with water developments previously completed tends to 
become overgrazed. It is thought that with this additional water, new land 
will be opened for stock. 

Three windmill installations had been completed by the end of the 
year, two with water troughs. The third windmill installation included a 
fifty- thousand gallon steel rim storage tank. It is within 15 miles of Kayenta 



33 



near the Chilchinbeto road, in a flat rolling country, which promises to he 
excellent grazing land. This work is permanent and will be a benefit to the 
Navajos of this region. 



Truck And Stock Trails Have Been Built 

About twenty-five miles of truck trail have been reworked. In one. 
case a new six-mile stretch was made in order to avoid crossing a wash five 
times. The total length was cut nearly a mile in this short distance. On 
the road from Kayenta towards Utah many sharp curves have been removed and 
sandy stretches have been, to a large extent, removed by this additional work. 
Many small wooden culverts were installed along this trail. Although the cul- 
verts took a great deal of time to build and place, they help to make the 
road more secure during rainy weather. A more satisfactory road has thus 
been made. Repairing of roads over which there is much traffic is a definite 
saving - especially to equipment. 

Some stock trails have been built to enable stock to reach water. 
In one particular case the spring and troughs had been so located that stock 
from down the valley could water easily, but any stock coming from up the val- 
ley were confronted by a cliff, a death-trap, before they could reach the wa- 
ter. A stock trail has now been made so. that the stock can easily get to the 
water which is so near. Other stock trails open more grazing land for the 
stock. This tjroe of work is appreciated by the Indians because they can see 
the improvement, the change and the advantage- of the new over the old. 



Treacherous Laguna Wash Bridged 



One of the most beneficial projects completed in this region is the 
timber bent bridge over the Laguna Wash, one mile north of Kayenta. This 
wash has been a source of constant worry to travelers and traders as well as 
to the Indians. The approaches to the old rock crossing were extremely steep 
and the crossing itself was mean even in fair weather. After a rain, none 
attempted to cross but would wait, per- 
haps one or two days, for the wash to 
lower, in order to cross safely. Some 
few adventurous travelers in the past 
have attempted a crossing during high 
water. Practically without exception 
they have been rewarded by the loss of 
car or wagon. Squire Mangum, former 
stockman in this district, was among 
those losing a car and just before the 
bridge was completed, a Navajo saw his 
wagon float downstream while he strug- 
gled to the bank with a few broken ribs 

North Bank In Rock Project 104-8-10 




34 



The site for the bridge was chosen in September and work began on 
the tenth of October. Thirty days later the bridge was completed. The 
bridge is of U. S. Indian Service Timber Bent design. It has four twenty- 
foot spans, making the total length eighty feet. Much difficulty was en- 
countered in pouring concrete foundations as there were six or seven feet 
of quicksand above the rock bottom. Sheet piling was driven, quicksand ex- 
cavated, holes drilled in the rock bottom, dowel pins set and concrete poured 
in each of the three large foundations. This was the hardest part of the 
work and when completed the bridge progressed rapidly. 

At first the Indians had some trouble in understanding the new 
tools and the new ways of doing things, but as time went on they began to 
see the main object of all the preliminaries. Some were inclined to be 
doubtful as to the length of time the bridge would withstand the flood waters 
of the Laguna Wash, but as they saw the rough heavy timbers and careful work- 
manship going into the bridge, they gradually changed their views. Now, those 
who worked on the bridge do not hesitate to make the fact known and they seem 
to feel, and rightly, that they have contributed something for the good of 
Kayenta and the nearby country. 

The approaches presented quite a problem. On the south side, nearly 
two thousand cubic yards of earth were moved to make an easy grade from the 
bridge. On the north side some two hundred and thirty cubic yards of rock 
were removed. Several cases of dynamite were used to accomplish this. This 
bridge as it now stands is a goodly sight. The traffic over it is amazingly 
heavy for this region. 




The New Bridge Over Laguna Wash Will Help to 
Prevent Quicksand Accidpnts Like This. 



35 







36 



FINE HORSES - PRIDE OF THE CROWS 
As Told By Superintendent Robert Yellowtail, Crow Agency, Montana 




Ready For The Cattle Round-Up 

The Crow Indians of Montana, from early days, were noted for their 
fine horses and expert horsemanship. Early observers, such as Maximilian, 
Lewis and Clark and George Catlin, have all commented in their memoirs uoon 
this phase of Crow life and history. 

The original Crow horses came, of course, from the descendants of 
the horses brought by the Spanish to the Southwest. The Crows added to their 
stock in frontier days by capturing horses from the. Sioux and other tribes, 
who in turn raided the herds of Federal military encampments. From the of- 
ficers' mounts they obtained some of the best thoroughbred strains from the 
Kentucky country. 

In the pre-reservation days the Crows' Indian neighbors - the Bloods 
and Blackfeet on the North, the Sioux and Cheyennes on the East and the Sho- 
shones, Bannocks and Flatheads to the Southwest, Northwest and West - oaid 
them the compliment of making periodic raids for the superior Crow horses. 
Their particular objectives were the spectacular ointo ponies and the fast 
buffalo-chase horses in which the Crows took particular pride. These were 
usually kept herded close to camp or picketed at night to the teoee poles; 
especially valuable and cherished horses, in fact, were tied to the owner's 
leg at night for safekeeping. 



37 




Belgian Stallion 



Today Superintendent Yellowtail and the Agency staff are stressing 
the continued development of fine horses for the Crow people - not only fine 
horses but those breeds best suited to the Crow country and its needs. 

At the present time there are at the Crow Agency six highly-bred 
registered stallions. Two are racing stallions, one of which once ran second 
in the Kentucky Derby. There is also a fine registered Morgan stallion, 
heading a herd of 36 registered Morgan mares, individually owned by various 
Crow Indians. Crossing the Morgan horse, which is heavily-muscled, powerful 
and with a gentle disposition, with the native western mares makes for a 
superb cow-pony. "Thoroughbreds are not the best for riding herd," said 
Superintendent Yellowtail. "They are hot-tempered and once they get heated 
up there's no stopping them; they want to go until they drop. For a good 
cow-pony you want a horse that is sensible and tough, quick on his feet and 
easily handled." 

With a view to improving the reservation's draft animals, two 
Belgian stallions of a beautiful strawberry-roan color and a fine Shire 
stallion - all of them blue-ribbon horses in their class and breed - were 
purchased in Canada. In addition to these stallions, 40 head of high-grade 
Percheron mares, many of which are purebreds, were purchased last summer by 
the superintendent and resold to the Crows under the reimbursable plan. 

In 1920, a tribal fund of $50,000 was set aside by the Crows as 
the capital stock of a tribal bank. This fund has proven invaluable - not 



38 



only for the purchase of live stock, but for farming implements, home build- 
ing materials and countless other needs. All of the animals told about here 
were paid for from this revolving loan fund. The stallions described above 
have cost the Crows, according to Superintendent Yellowtail, not over 44 cents 
per capita. With the fine breeding stock they now possess and supported by 
their reimbursable fund, Crow horses, says Superintendent Yellowtail, are 
going to make horse history in Montana. 

Something of the Crows* feeling for horses was expressed by one 
of the Crow delegates who was in Washington not long ago. 

"Pine horses meant everything to us Crows - they still do," he 
said. "It was like this: you wanted good horses for yourself, and not only 
that, you wanted them for your relatives too, because you want your relatives 
to have things as nice as you do. And to get good horses, you used to steal 
them from other tribes or from the whites. I guess the Crows were about the 
best horse-choosers and stealers in that part of the country; at least we 
think we were. It wasn't the same as stealing is now, you understand; it 
was an honorable thing to do - it was like war. We don't steal horses any- 
more, but we sure still like them. We Crows like to feel we are riding the 
best and that all our relatives and friends are riding the best too. That 
feeling goes even for automobiles. But a beautiful horse is the best." 



(Photograph on page 37 by G. Buckner.) 




Morgan Stallion 
39 



FORT HALL EMERGENCY CONSERVATION WORK UNDERTAKES VARIED PROGRAM 
By C. B. Garrett, Project Manager 

E.C.W. accomplishments at Fort Hall, Idaho, include: 

Construction of guard stations , which will he used in range con- 
trol work. 

Three overnight log cabins . Indians who camp while getting out 
wood now have permanent and sanitary camp grounds. 

A garage, warehouse and cottage for the project manager at the' agency. 

Telephone lines . Fifty-seven miles of them. 

Boundary and drift fences . 190 miles - dividing cattle and sheep 
range and spring and summer range. 

Development of 75 springs . 

Wells, windmills, troughs and storage tanks built . 

One hundred and six miles of truck trail constructed or reconstructed. 

Irrigation work , including the cleaning of fifteen miles of ditch 
banks, installation of six checks on Little Indian and twelve head gates on 
the Bannock Creek ditches. 

The sowing of new grasses . This work, particularly, should prove of 
great value in the future. Six thousand acres were sown with crested wheat 
and sand grass and nine thousand pounds of yellow and white sweet clover were 
widely sown on the Fort Hall Bottoms. These areas were not completely sown; 
just sufficient seed was put out to establish mother plants. 

Projects carried out under the Biological Survey have included the 
taking of seven hundred coyotes, also 30,000 magpies, and the treating of 
250,000 acres with poison grain for rodents. 50,000 acres have been treated 
with poison and trapped for gophers. 

Miscellaneous projects have included the treating of 100,000 acres 
with areenite to combat Mormon crickets, 200 man-days expended fighting grass 
and brush fires, 1400 man-days spent by line riders checking trespass and 
crossing stock, the installation of four dams for the purpose of raising fish 
on Fort Hall Bottoms, the planting of ten acres of hardwoods on Fort Hall Bot- 
toms and the establishment of demonstration plots. 



40 



E. G. W . AT FORT HALL AGENCY, IDAHO 




Crew Dusting Mormon Crickets With Sodium Arsenate 




Water Development 
41 



r 




m 
♦» 

<B 

o 

a 
o 
u 

+» 

01 



o 

*» 
o 

I 



42 



NEW STUDY OF NAVAJO SITUATION ISSUED 



The National Association on Indian Affairs and the American Indian 
Defense Association have issued, jointly, a 30-page bulletin, "The Navajos 
and the Land." The text is by Moris Burge, Field Representative of the Na- 
tional Association on Indian Affairs, with a foreword by Oliver La Farge , 
President of the Association. It is a clear and dispassionate appraisal of 
the Navajo land problem and the government's part in its solution. The crit- 
icisms are just; the figures quoted are accurate. The bulletin makes en- 
lightening reading. 

A few quotations: 

"For many reasons the Navajos are in the public eye. The largest 
tribe of Indians in the United States of America, with a population of approx- 
imately 45,000, they lead a colorful and primitive existence on vast stretches 
of high desert and mountain in New Mexico and Arizona, ranging in altitude 
from 5,000 to 10,000 feet. For a living they depend almost entirely on herds 
of sheen and goats, agricultural products and a small income from weaving, 
silversmithing and wages." 



"Briefly, the Indian Service on the Navajo Reservation is farced with 
the major problem of maintaining and improving the present economic state of 
the Navajo nation, in spite of an increasing population and limited natural 
resources. There is little hope of extending the present boundaries beyond 
the proposed line in New Mexico, the land at present at the disposal of the 
Navajos is extremely poor, water for farming and stock is scarce and uncer- 
tain and the range has deteriorated through overgrazing and erosion. It is 
a desperate situation, calling for the cooperation and help of everyone in- 
terested in this virile and upstanding tribe." 



Mr. Burge then gives a brief resume of the early extensions of the 
reservation, its unplanned development and the growing recognition, during 
the previous administration, of the need for drastic action, finally under- 
taken during the present administration. 

He cites the difficulties which faced the carrying out of a definite 
program: the hostility of the larger Navajo stock owners, the general resent- 
ment against stock reduction, the opposition of white interests. He emphasizes 
the stringent need for stock reduction, never admitted by some outside critics. 
"Actually," he says, "the reduction of live stock on the Navajo Reservation 
has been entirely inadequate and the ranges are still seriously overstocked." 
He criticizes early reduction methods: the use of a percentage basis in re- 
duction as working hardship on the small owners and leaving the large owners 



43 



practically unscathed; and the subsequently blasted confidence that the New 
Mexico Boundary Bill would be passed after stock reductions had been made. 

"No one really informed on the administration of the Navajos dur- 
ing the past four years will deny that there have been mistakes and confu- 
sion. The change from the six agencies to the central administration plant 
at Window Rock, the start of the Emergency Conservation Work, the introduc- 
tion of the Soil Conservation Service and the start of the Day School Program, 
all were marked with blunders, sometimes of a serious nature. Most of the 
mistakes can be traced to the unavoidable haste with which these projects 
were begun, due to the limited time in which the money had to be spent. Dur- 
ing the first few months of the Emergency Conservation Work, when plans were 
half-formed, authority divided and the reservation showered with people ful], 
of new theories on Indian life, many serious observers believed that the 
Navajos would have been better off if the money had never been spent. The 
confusion caused by the first efforts to establish day schools caused serious 
opposition from all sides rnd jeopardized the future of this important change 
in the Navajo educational system." 



The development of the present centralized administration and the 
land management plan for the Navajos 'are discussed in some detail and in gener- 
al endorsed: 

"The basic theory behind the new administrative plan, the centrali- 
zation under one man of all policies affecting the Navajos with adequate 
field staff to look to the needs of the Indians, and the control of all 
branches of the Indian Service working with the Navajos, is unquestionably 
sound, but it will take years of patient work before it is firmly established. 
It is hard to change the customs of any peonle, Indians perhaps more than 
whites, and the Navajos have regarded their local superintendent as their 
contact with Washington and the government since Fort Defiance Agency was 
first established in 1869. 



"Under Superintendent Fryer, district supervisors have been amoointed 
to the eighteen Land Management Areas (described on the next page), who will 
work under the direction of the Central Agency. Although the duties of these 
supervisors have been limited to land management matters, they will relieve 
much of the pressure on the superintendent and fill the pressing need for men 
with authority in the field. The limited areas that they will have to cover 
will enable them to know conditions of both the Indians and the land in a way 
that was impossible under the jurisdictional system. The policies for the 
entire reservation will be determined at the Central Agency and put into effect 
by these district supervisors who will be in direct contact with the Indians. 
This system should eliminate not only the confusion of policies which has 
existed in the oast, but also the tendency to neglect the Navajos in outlying 
districts. We were interested in the tyne of men picked for these important 
positions. We found without exception that they are practical men with experi- 
ence in the field and a record of successful dealings with Indians. 



44 



"The present administration has "been accused of wiping out the 
Navajos' source of life and bringing them to poverty and distress. In a few 
cases mistaken zeal has caused hardships, but these are a few isolated ex- 
ceptions." 



"Policy on the Navajo Reservation affecting the economic life of 
the Indians and their use of the land is guided almost entirely by the Land 
Management Division of the Navajo Service." 



"Members of the Soil Conservation and Indian Services concerned with 
this problem in the Land Management Division of the Navajo Service, with 
headquarters at Window Rock under Dr. W. G. McG-innies as director. The Divi- 
sion jLs under the General Superintendent of the Navajos, and Dr. McGinnies is 
also responsible to the Soil Conservation Service headquarters in Albuquerque. 
All activities affecting the land are handled by this Division. The fusion 
of the two Services and the establishment of the General Superintendent's 
control have been important steps in the development of the Navajo administra- 
tion and have eliminated one of the major sources of trouble during the past 
few years." 



"As a preliminary step in the tremendous task of compiling detailed 
information on the Navajos' resources, the Land Management Division undertook 
a general survey of the entire reservation. This was done through trained 
technical men. Maps were compiled to show the necessary data and to have a 
more accurate base map for this work an aerial survey was made covering 
16,500,000 acres. When this step in the work was completed, the reservation 
was divided into eighteen areas which were determined by natural boundaries 
such as watersheds, mountain ranges, wide canyons and other physical barriers. 
The use of the land by the Indians in the past and the grouping of the popula- 
tion were also taken into consideration. An estimate of the population was 
made through the Chapters, local organizations developed during the Rhoads 
administration and the result was an approximate figure of 47,000. 

"An intensive study of each of these areas is now being made which 
when completed will give reliable, factual information on the economic life 
of the Navajo, the possible development of his resources and the adjustments 
that will be necessary if he is to continue to exist on the reservation. To 
compile this information a field party will work for several months in each 
area. This party includes men trained in the study of Agronomy, Sociology, 
Forestry, Range Management, Irrigation and Engineering. A definite schedule 
has been formulated by the heads of the Land Management Division which is to 
be closely followed by the field party. This will not only eliminate irrele- 
vant information, but also ensure a fairly consistent approach to the various 
problems which will arise. It will also greatly simplify the organisation of 
the material when it is complete." 

45 



Passage of the Boundary Bill is urged. The report concludes: 

"Work on the reservation in the past has teen inconsistent and at 
times harmful to both the Indian and his land. With the new administrative 
organization and the material gathered by the Land Management Division, an 
intelligent and comprehensive plan for the development of the Navajo Reser- 
vation can be formulated. This plan will not be put into effect in a short 
while, but will be the result of continuous and consistent work on the part 
of the Indian Service and Indians for years to come. Plans will undoubtedly 
be modified and changed as the work progresses but there will be a definite, 
basic policy behind all work dealing with land ase and the economic life of 
the Navajo. At the present time the government is spending vast sums of 
money on the Navajo Reservation and it is impossible to contemplate an in- 
definite continuation of this expenditure. The Navajos must gradually take 
over the responsibility of using their land in an intelligent manner and 
cease the present destruction of the very fibre of their economic existence. 11 

****** 

The price of the bulletin is twenty-five cents. Copies may be 
obtained from the central office of the National Association on Indian Af- 
fairs at 120 East 57th Street, New York City, N. T. 



THREAT TO SENECA LAND AVERTED 



The grave peril to the Seneca Indians in New York threatened by the 
proposed construction of a large flood-control dam on the Allegheny River 
below Salamanca has been averted for the time being at least. That dam, if 
built, would blot out forever, uractically all lands of any value for Indian 
home sites or other domestic purposes within the Allegany Indian Reservation. 
These lands constitute practically the last remnant of a princely domain, 
once owned and occupied by the powerful Seneca Tribe, a component of the famed 
Iroquois League which the white man shortly learned both to fear and respect 
after landing on the shores of the American continent. 

Naturally and most justly, the Indians are bitterly opposed to 
yielding up to the insatiable desires for progress on the part of the white 
man practically the last vista of possessions cherished from time immemorial 
by a sturdy, independent, self-respecting people. Colonial history is replete 
with the names of famous Seneca chiefs such as Red Jacket, Cornplanter and 
others. 

Recent developments indicate that the damage from flood waters oc- 
curring at Pittsburgh and elsewhere along the Allegheny River can successfully 
be taken care of by construction of suitable check and impounding dams else- 
where than shortly below Salamanca, resulting in the flooding of no lands be- 
longing to the Indians. This will prove a happy solution to the Indian as 
well as to the white man. 



46 



J. P. KINNEY OF I.E.C.W . STAFF WRITES HISTORY OF INDIAN LAND TENURE 
By Allan G. Harper, Field Representative in Charge of Indian Organization 

A CONTINENT LOST — A CIVILIZATION WON - By J. P. Kinney 

The Johns Hopkins Press - Baltimore, 1937. $4.00 

With infinite pains, Mr. J. P. Kinney has undertaken the enormous 
task of spading over the mountainous mass of statutes, government reports, 
treaties and other contemporary documents to put together a consecutive his- 
tory of Indian land tenure from the earliest times to the present day. By 
a generous use of pertinent extracts from these sources , he has largely al- 
lowed the chief actors in the drama to unfold their own story. The net re- 
sult is to add a very worth-while study to the literature on the Indian land 
question. 

Fully half of the text is devoted to a consideration of the all- 
important subject of land allotment. Mr. Kinney's research into the early 
origins of the concept of individualizing Indian land holdings carries the 
story into the more remote past than did the fine study of Mr. D. S. Otis, 
made in 1934. We learn, for example, that its first expression goes back 
as far as 1633 when the General Court (legislature) of Massachusetts invited 
Indians to come to the English plantations, lead civil and orderly lives and 
have "allotments amongst the English, according to the custom of the English 
in like case." Mr. Kinney's book is also a more comprehensive treatment of 
the development of the allotment policy in the first part of the nineteenth 
century. As he shows exhaustively, there had been a very considerable experi- 
mentation with land in severalty before it was universally applied to all In- 
dian lands by the General Allotment Act of 1887. 

One wishes that Mr. Kinney had analyzed these earlier experiments 
with a more quantitative test of their success. In fact, they met with no 
such success as to have warranted the enactment of the allotment law as the 
foundation stone of the government's land policy. The complete story of 
what happened to the land holdings of the tribes which were allotted before 
1887 has yet to be written. 

It must be remembered that the American Indian tribes, when first 
brought into contact with European civilization, had not developed any con- 
cepts of individual land ownership. They had no concept of individual in- 
heritance of land. They had no concept of selling or conveying title to land. 
There was an almost mystical attachment to the soil of their homeland. "The 
sun is my father and the earth my mother," said Tecumseh to Harrison. That 
allotment faltered and failed from the beginning comes as no surprise to those 
who have comprehended the persistent influence of such hardy racial condition- 



47 



ings. This is not to say that land in severalty has never been successful; 
nor that it will never he successful. But it is plain that the radical ex- 
ponents of allotment have pursued, to the Indians' detriment, a doctrinaire 
philosophy without taking these cultural factors into consideration. Not un- 
til 1934, with the enactment of the Indian Reorganization Act, did the govern- 
ment take cognizance of the almost unbroken record of failure and of the 
shocking loss of land and social dislocation which allotment entailed. 

In one sense, we never can have a complete and unbiased statement 
of the Indian land question, around which most of Indian history has taken 
place, because we never can have an unquestioned record of what the Indians 
themselves thought and believed. The records we have to work with are the 
white man's records and all we can do is to speculate on what was going on 
in the Indians' minds. The Indians are in a like case to that of the South- 
erner whose history was once almost wholly written by New Englanders. The 
ledger of Indian-white relationships, the wrongs and good deeds of both, 
have unfortunately been kept by one of the parties concerned. 

None of these remarks is intended to detract from the able and 
careful study which Mr. Kinney has produced. It should become a valuable 
source of information and reference to all those who would understand pres- 
ent-day problems related to Indian lands. 



FATHER GAGNIEUR , WORKER FOR HA LF-CENTURY AMONG CHIPPEWAS . DIES 

The Reverend Father William Francis Gagnieur, beloved Jesuit 
priest, who worked among the Great Lakes Indians for some fifty years, died 
in February at the age of seventy-nine. 

He was not only a devoted priest and missionary but an accomplished 
student of Indian languages which he has helped to record phonograph ically. 

Part of his epitaph reads: 

"This beloved Priest, dear to the northern Indian tribes and white 
men and women alike who knew him, was the last of the long line of Jesuit 
Priests in the St. Mary's River region of which Father James Marquette, who 
came here in 1668, was the first." 



48 



FROM I.B.C.W. REPORTS 



Varied Activities At^ Potawatomi 
( Kansas ) Sac and Fox. Reservation : 
A small crew of men has been working 
on this reservation grubbing trees 
to he set out around lakes. 214 
trees - ash, elm, hackberry, mulber- 
ry, oak, sumach, walnut - were grubbed 
this week. Since the ground is still 
frozen, it is a little difficult to 
grub the trees. 

Kickapoo Reservation : Two crews 
have been digging on wells this week 
on this reservation and a third crew 
has been quarrying rock to be used 
in walling the wells. Two men worked 
at building a fence around one of the 
dams in preparation for planting 
trees around the lake. 

Potawatomi Reservation : Two 
crews are digging on wells on the 
Potawatomi Reservation this week. 
Two crews are working at quarrying 
rock to be used for walling of wells 
and construction of masonry check 
dams. Three crews have been plant- 
ing trees around dams. The men work- 
ing on tree planting set out 540 trees, 
dug 2,708 holes for setting out of 
trees and dug up 510 trees to be set 
out. P. Everett Suerry . 

Drainage Work At Salem Indian 
School ( Oregon ) The work on this 
project was somewhat retarded be- 
cause we ran into a mixture of clay 
and beaver-dam soil. We believe that 
this project is teaching the Siletz 
and Grand Ronde Indians the fundamen- 
tals of soil conservation by actual 
experience which they probably would 
not fully grasp by reading. They see 



the value of underground drainage in 
preventing the top-soil erosion. 
L. Shawver, Dairyman . 

Progress At Coeur d'Alene 
( Idaho ) The cruising and mapping 
has been moving along at a pretty 
good pace this week. The snow is 
rapidly leaving the north slopes so 
that it is much easier to get around. 
Pretty soon we shall start to trace 
some of the map sheets. There is 
not a very large labor turnover on 
the timber reconnaisance crew as 
they seem to like the work. Harold ' 
Wing , Project Manager . 

Camp Ground Development At Rose - 
bud ( South DakotaT~Spotted Tail Park 
Project : This group of men have 
cleared all the brush from the park 
area this week; they have dismantled 
an old fence and picked up all the 
barbed wire. The men are engaged 
under close supervision in the thin- 
ning of the trees so that parts of 
the park will be made accessible to 
the public. The trees being cut 
are to be used for fencing the -nark 
area. Ralnh 0. Aonerson , Principle 
Foreman . 

Night School Program Completed 
At Turtle Mountain ( North Dakota ) 
The Night School Program was com- 
pleted last Thursday. Representa- 
tive articles that were completed 
were placed on display in the audi- 
torium on this night. In this way, 
outsiders can inspect the work and 
see what has been done. The enter- 
tainment for that evening consisted 
of some form of musical act or 



49 



dialogue from each class. After 
the entertainment lunch was served 
and the evening was completed with 
card-playing. Also at this time 
certificates were issued to each 
student, thereby certifying that he 
had attended the classes regularly 
and for his efforts, was made this 
award. Donald Flahart, Junior En- 
gineer . 

Repair And Maintenance Work At 
Uintah & Ouray ( Utah ) Our seventy 
"Cat" has just "been completed with 
an overhauling job. Ernest Holmes, 
our head mechanic, spent three days 
here in camp on account of bad roads. 
He remained here to be close to his 
work. With the help of some of our 
camp boys, Mr. Holmes was able to 
put the "Cat" back in first-class 
running order. Our bulldozer will 
also be overhauled, which will put 
our heavy trail machinery in shape 
for our spring work. 

Some maintenance work was done 
on our trails this past week. Drain 
ditches were cut across the trails 
to keep from washing deep ruts and 
causing washouts in places. 

Roy Langley with two of our boys 
have spent two days trying to locate 
cornerstones. Deep snow has made it 
quite difficult to locate some of 
these cornerstones. Pence building 
will start from this camp as soon 
as the weather permits. 

Our amusement hall which col- 
lapsed due to heavy snowstorms, is 
well under way. We expected to have 
this building up by the 15th of this 
month but delay on the shipment of 
lumber put us back a few days. We 
expect to have this building up in a 
short time. Carnes La Rose. 



Community Meeting At Kiowa ( Okla - 
homa ) Two check dams were completed 
this week and two other check dams were 
75$ completed. 

The third community meeting was 
held last night at Mountain View, 
Oklahoma. There were about three hun- 
dred people out to see the program. 
Everybody sure did enjoy the program. 

We want to thank each and every- 
one who made it possible for our In- 
dians to work during the cold winter 
months . We hope we can be put back 
to work soon. Robert Goombi. 

Drainage Work At New York ( New 
York ) The snowstorm on Wednesday 
somewhat retarded our work but on 
Thursday, conditions improved so work 
continued at a normal pace. A slight 
thaw caused the water to seep into the 
ditch, but not enough to interfere 
with the work. We expect to get to 
the high point in about ten days. The 
ditch in this section, when completed, 
will drain many acres of land which 
hitherto were mostly under water for 
the most part of the spring season. 
Joseph F. Tachell . 

Tree Planting At Taholah ( Wash - 
ington ) Project No. 58 is practically 
completed for this time; having 
planted 83,000 spruce and 10,200 
douglas fir of the nursery stock; 
5,300 spruce of the wild stock were 
also planted. There are approximate- 
ly 375 acres planted of the 500 acres 
originally planned to plant for this 
period. 

Project No. 54 consisted of 
cleaning out slides and ditches and 
patching frost damage. 

Project No. 55 consisted of re- 



50 



pairing and brushing out foot trails. 

Project No. 5 2 consisted of set- 
ting building on foundation. 

Project No. 57 , Operation of 
Nursery, consisted of routine work in 
the nursery. Paul Brodersen . 

Indians Pleased With I.E.C.W . 
At Pipestone Schoo l ( Minnesota ) The 
Pipestone Sioux Indians have had 
very favorable weather for their 
work during the past week. The In- 
dians in this community are well- 
pleased and thankful to have work on 
I.E.C.W. at this time as there is no 
other work available. We have experi- 
enced a very severe winter and if it 
were not for I.E.C.W." our Indians in 
this community would have suffered 
greatly. J. M. Balmer - Superintend - 
ent . 

Hazard Reduction At Sisseton 
( South Dakota ) Work on our Kazard 
Seduction Project was resumed on 
March 15th after a period of inac- 
tivity of over a week due to the fact 
that funds allotted to that project 
had been expended . Authority was 
granted from the "Washington Office to 
continue with this project as it was 
the only one going at the Agency at 
this time. 

A new crew was organised and 
more work has been accomplished this 
week than any previous week that we 
worked on this project. It is hoped 
to get most of the dead wood disposed 
of before the spring thaws began and 
destroy what is left of it. P. Nico- 
demus . 

Favorable Weather Conditions At 
Yakima ( Washington ) Weather condi- 
tions have been exceptionally fine 
this week, with generally overcast 



skies, but no rain. The trails here 
in the lowlands are dry and in good 
condition, so that the work on the 
graveling project from Mill Creek to 
Olney Creek has run along very nicely. 
The ga.soline shovel has proven itself 
very satisfactory. 

The garage and repair shop is 
busy overhauling trucks and tractors 
and is putting them in first-class 
condition for the coming season. 
A. W^ Mitchell . 

Protection Of Wild Life At Flat - 
head ( Montana ) Work was continued 
in the area north of the Big Draw. 
There is much game wintering in this 
area. The coyotes are numerous and 
are killing some deer. Crusted snow 
allows the coyotes to walk on the 
top while deer being chased by the 
coyotes break through and have hard 
going in twenty inches of snow. 
Harold P. Smith . 

Truck Trail Work At Hoona Valley 
( California ) Work has been progress- 
ing rapidly on all projects during 
the week. The Cletrac Bulldozer 
put in a full week on the Bloody 
Camp Truck Trail and made a good show- 
ing. The right-of-way crew is now 
in heavy timber and doing considerable 
blasting. 

The crew working on the Subsist- 
ence Garden Project at Johnson Vil- 
lage completed 1500 feet of ditch 
and cleared 1.2 acres of right-of-way, 
making the project 15$ completed as 
of March 13. The heavy timber and 
rough terrain on this project have 
slowed up the project somewhat but 
the men and people living at Johnson 
are grea.tly interested in this prog- 
ress to date and the men deserve 
much credit for their showing. 
Patrick _!• Rogers, Assistant Clerk. 



51 



SMrTHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES 



3 9088 01625 0300